The Top Foods for Eye Health

Scheie Eye Institute, University of Pennsylvania
Healthy food
Learn about the foods that can best maintain the health of your eyes.

Your mother probably told you to “eat your vegetables.” In this instance, she was right. Several large epidemiological studies have found that people who eat more fruits and vegetables have a decreased risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

Fruits and Vegetables

Protection is most likely provided by antioxidants in the fruits and veggies. AMD is thought to be caused, in part, by oxidative damage, and fruits/veggies provide antioxidants that our bodies cannot synthesize. Among these, lutein and zeaxanthin are particularly protective. These carotenoids, related to vitamin A, are concentrated in the macula. Foods that are rich in lutein and zeaxanthin include spinach, kale, collard greens, yellow/orange peppers, and yellow corn.

Fatty Fish

A meal of salmon on vegetables with lemon.
Consumption of fatty fish, such as salmon, tuna, mackerel, and sardines twice a week has also been linked to lower AMD risk. This may result from omega 3 fatty acids. However, a large clinical trial called the age-related eye disease study (AREDS2) showed that omega 3 fatty acid vitamin supplements did not provide protection, so it is apparently better to eat the fish than the supplements. There is also evidence that people with dry eye (low tear production) may benefit from the omega 3 fish oils. Fish should be grilled or broiled, not fried. Too much fish, however, may lead to higher mercury levels, so twice a week is a good target, not much more.

It’s not always easy to obtain and prepare fresh vegetables and fish. One option is to make smoothies with frozen blueberries, cocoa (also rich in antioxidants), flax or chia seeds (rich in omega 3 fatty acids) and spinach.

B Vitamins

Higher levels of B vitamins have also been linked to lower AMD risk. Vitamin B6 is found in vegetables and beans, while B12 is abundant in fish and other animal products. However, an Australian study found that higher red meat consumption increases AMD risk. This may result from increased absorption of iron, which can accumulate in the retina and increase oxidative stress


A cutting board with walnuts.
Nuts also contain omega 3 oils, especially walnuts, and some evidence suggests they may decrease AMD risk. However, nuts have lots of calories, so it’s best to limit the amount to no more than about 1/4 cup a day.

Nutrient Rich and Lower Calories

Higher body weight is a risk factor for AMD, as is higher systemic inflammation, which can also exacerbate arthritis. Weight and inflammation can be reduced by following a nutrient-rich, lower calorie diet. This is likely to result not just in lower AMD risk, but also better overall health. Consider large salads as the main course for lunch and dinner, adding relatively small amounts of animal protein, such as grilled salmon or chicken, if desired, as garnish. The traditional small salad that comes with dinner at a restaurant just isn’t enough. Restaurants specializing in large made-to-order fresh salads are a great option.


BrightFocus-Funded Research:


This content was first posted on: November 30, 2016

The information provided here is a public service of the BrightFocus Foundation and should not in any way substitute for personalized advice of a qualified healthcare professional; it is not intended to constitute medical advice. Please consult your physician for personalized medical advice. BrightFocus Foundation does not endorse any medical product, therapy, or resources mentioned or listed in this article. All medications and supplements should only be taken under medical supervision. Also, although we make every effort to keep the medical information on our website updated, we cannot guarantee that the posted information reflects the most up-to-date research.

These articles do not imply an endorsement of BrightFocus by the author or their institution, nor do they imply an endorsement of the institution or author by BrightFocus.

Some of the content may be adapted from other sources, which will be clearly identified within the article.

More Like This

  • Expert

    The Progression of Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) can cause rapid vision loss. Learn how recent advances in treating wet AMD have decreased the rate of vision loss, and about research that may eliminate the need for injections.

    August 31, 2020
  • Expert

    Diet a Key to Vision Health, Leading Scientist Tells BrightFocus Audience

    Citing research showing a strong link between dietary patterns and age-related vision disease, Tufts University researcher Sheldon Rowan, PhD, told a recent BrightFocus Chat about the impact of lifestyle choices, such as diet and exercise, on the likelihood of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness.

    August 18, 2020
Don't miss out.
Receive research updates, inspiring stories, and expert advice
Please enter your first name.
Please enter your last name.
Keep me informed about: *
Please select at least one.
You must select at least one disease category.