Identification of Novel Mechanisms Responsible for Developmental Glaucoma

Douglas Gould, PhD
The Regents of the University of California, San Francisco (San Francisco, CA)
Year Awarded:
2014
Grant Duration:
July 1, 2014 to June 30, 2016
Disease:
Glaucoma
Award Amount:
$100,000
Grant Reference ID:
G2014007
Award Type:
Standard
Award Region:
US Southwestern

Identification and In Vivo Validation of Novel Genes for Developmental Glaucoma

Summary

Developmental glaucoma strikes early in life and can be caused by a congenital problem known as anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD), which is when the fluid-filled anterior segment of the eye doesn’t develop properly. One of the major consequences of ASD is glaucoma, which can lead to irreversible blindness at a young age. Our goal is to understand how these problems come about with the end goal of establishing treatments.

Details

The focus of this project is to identify and validate new genes that can cause malformations of the front of the eye that lead to glaucoma.

We are approaching this goal in three steps. First, we are sequencing the entire genomes of patients that have developmental glaucoma and using sophisticated computational tools to prioritize genetic variants that might be causing glaucoma in these patients. Next, to prove that the mutations that we identify are indeed involved in eye development, we will express the mutations in zebrafish to see if they also cause developmental defects in that model system. If they do, we will use these model organisms to try to understand how the mutant gene leads to glaucoma. Finally, for genes that are validated to be involved in eye development, we will sequence a large panel of other patients that have developmental glaucoma to try to understand what proportion of patients might be affected by mutations in the newly identified gene.

There are two unique aspects of our project. First, we are using 'whole genome sequencing' to identify genes that might cause glaucoma in patients. While many groups seek to identify novel genes by sequencing only the coding regions of the genome, we will examine the entire genome to identify mutations that may be overlooked using other methods. Second, we are employing cutting edge genome editing techniques to quickly and specifically recreate mutations in zebrafish to generate new research models.

Upon completion of this project, we will know more about the genes and cellular pathways that are disrupted in developmental glaucoma. Understanding how these pathways work is important because that opens the possibility that the pathway(s) can be restored or preserved to prevent or treat glaucoma in these patients.

About the Researcher

Douglas Gould received his PhD in medical genetics from the University of Alberta, where he studied the role of FOXC1 in ocular development and glaucoma, working in the laboratory of Michael Walters, PhD. He then moved to The Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine, to continue studying ocular development and disease in the laboratory of Simon W. M. John, PhD. There he discovered that mutations in type IV collagen alpha 1 (COL4A1) cause a multi-system disorder that includes ocular dysgenesis and glaucoma. Dr. Gould presently is an associate professor in the Departments of Ophthalmology and Anatomy and the Institute for Human Genetics at the UCSF School of Medicine. His lab has continued to work on understanding how mutations in COL4A1 lead to disease and identifying new genes that cause glaucoma.
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