Early Melanopsin Ganglion Cell Dysfunction in Glaucoma
Glaucoma is a disease often associated with increased intraocular pressure (IOP) that causes blindness when the nerve cells that carry information from the eye to the brain, called retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) die. One particular group of RGCs, called melanopsin RGCs, play a critical role in regulating sleep, mood, and pupil constriction, and it is likely that their function is altered during glaucoma. This project seeks to determine how melanopsin RGC performance and signaling to the brain are altered at early stages of glaucoma, after increases in eye pressure, but before RGCs die. This will help doctors understand some of the earliest signs of glaucoma and may lead to the development of entirely new ways to detect the disease at its earliest stages, and thus prevent blindness.
The goal of this project is to determine how the function of neurons in the retina responsible for resetting circadian rhythms and triggering constriction of the pupil are altered at early stages of glaucoma, before irreversible degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs).
The retina is an elegant piece of neural tissue comprised of several layers of neurons that capture photons and perform early-stage interpretation of visual information. Rod and cone photoreceptors detect light entering the eye and route their signals through bipolar cells to RGCs, which ultimately carry the information to the brain. A unique population of RGCs called “melanopsin RGCs” (mRGCs) possesses the molecular machinery enabling them to generate their own light responses that operate in concert with rod- and cone-driven signals received via bipolar cells. The unique nature of their light responses allow mRGCs to support, “reflexive” light-driven behaviors, such as regulation of mood, sleep, and pupil constriction. mRGCs also have been linked to cancer in shift workers and pain occurring during migraines, highlighting their importance to health.
Glaucoma is a disease of the eye that causes blindness when RGCs die. We know from studies in human patients and animal models that glaucoma alters the function of many types of RGCs before the onset of irreversible RGC loss. However, whether or how early-stage glaucoma alters the responses of mRGCs is a mystery. Our lab hopes to solve this mystery by using single-neuron electrical recordings to study the function of mRGCs in mouse retinas with glaucoma. We will test whether early stage glaucoma alters the molecular machinery enabling these cells to generate their own light responses, and also whether inputs received from rods and cones via bipolar cells are altered. The second aim of our research seeks to test whether glaucoma leads to changes in the properties of mRGC signaling to the brain. We will use anatomical techniques in concert with single-neuron electrical recordings and measurements of pupil constriction to test whether early-stage glaucoma alters mRGC outputs in regions of the brain specialized for these reflexive responses to environmental light.
This research is innovative in that is uses a powerful combination of neuroscience research techniques to determine how a subpopulation of RGCs, with well-defined functional roles and targets in the brain, are altered in glaucoma. Although there are upwards of 30 populations of RGCs in the retina, we do not know whether each type is similarly affected in glaucoma. Indeed, some published evidence has suggested that mRGCs might be uniquely resistant to dysfunction and degeneration. Regardless of whether this is indeed the case, or whether glaucoma does disrupt mRGCs, a detailed study of their function will lead to new knowledge about the biological mechanisms determining how RGCs and RGC signaling to the brain are affected by glaucoma.
This project also will provide valuable insights into how glaucoma alters the behavior of neurons in the retina and brain. Such experiments help scientists and doctors understand how glaucoma progresses and shed light on mechanisms that foreshadow RGC degeneration. Moreover, because mRGCs have well-defined functional roles, studies of their function or dysfunction in glaucoma will help doctors understand some of the earliest signs of glaucoma and develop ways to detect the disease at its earliest stages and prevent blindness.
About the Researcher
Dr. Matthew Van Hook is an assistant professor in the Truhlsen Eye Institute and the Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC) in Omaha, NE. After completing his undergraduate degree with a major in biology at Hamilton College in upstate New York, Dr. Van Hook earned his PhD. in Neuroscience at Brown University, where he studied how retinal dopamine alters the responses of retinal output neurons responsible for regulating sleep, mood, and pupil constriction. For postdoctoral training at UNMC, Dr. Van Hook received fellowship grant support from the National Institutes of Health to study processes regulating synaptic transmission and early-stage encoding of visual information by rod and cone photoreceptors. He established his own laboratory in 2016. The Van Hook lab uses a variety of cutting-edge neuroscience techniques to probe the basic signaling properties of retinal synapses and to determine how synaptic transmission in the retina and the brain is altered during blinding neurodegenerative diseases.
I always wanted to pursue a career in medicine and science. After starting my undergraduate education with my eyes set on applying to medical school, I landed in a neuroscience research lab and got hooked on laboratory research. This led me to change my plans and pursue a PhD in neuroscience after earning my BA. I have been privileged to be trained by excellent neuroscientists, including Dr. Dave Berson at Brown University, and Dr. Wallace Thoreson at UNMC, whose labs employ a variety of powerful techniques to shed light on the structure and function of retinal neurons. Eager to turn this experimental toolkit toward probing the mechanisms of retinal disease, I established my own lab in 2016, with the intention of determining how communication between neurons is disrupted at early stages of glaucoma. My hope is that this work will provide novel insights into the earliest signs of the disease in order to inform novel diagnostics and therapeutic strategies that can be translated into the clinic. As a newly-independent investigator, grant support from BrightFocus is essential to developing and pursuing these research aims and establishing my research program. I am truly grateful to the many donors whose ongoing and generous support for BrightFocus makes this possible.
First published on: September 14, 2017
Last modified on: June 30, 2019