Research on age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is rapidly producing new candidate drugs. These are usually discovered or tested first in mice. Next, there is a phase I trial that tests for safety and dose in a small number of patients. If the drug is safe, it may proceed to a phase II trial, usually with approximately one hundred patients, to continue to test safety and begin to assess effectiveness. Finally, a large phase III trial may be conducted to assess effectiveness. If the drug is safe and effective, the FDA may approve it.
AMD patients may wish to consider participating in clinical trials. By doing this you could receive a treatment that may be more effective than currently available options, as well as help future generations of patients.
By doing this you could receive a treatment that may be more effective than currently available options, as well as help future generations of patients.
How to Search for Clinical Trials
Each clinical trial has a list of inclusion and exclusion criteria. A retina specialist can help identify appropriate clinical trials for each patient. The trials may be conducted at one or multiple locations.
Clinical Trials for Wet AMD
The information below represents a sample of the clinical trials for wet AMD.
Lucentis and Eylea
Sustained release versions of Lucentis and Eylea are currently in clinical trials, and they may reduce the frequency of injections to once every 4-6 months.
For wet AMD, a drug called Fovista is was tested in combination with the current standard of care, which is intraocular injection of the VEGF inhibitors Eylea, Lucentis, or Avastin. VEGF stands for vascular endothelial growth factor, and when this protein is inhibited, it can block the growth of new leaky blood vessels, which can obscure vision and damage the retina.
However, results of a phase II trial from Regeneron showed no benefit when an anti-PDGF drug was added to an anti-VEGF drug. Similarly, Ophthotech announced in August that in a Phase III trial, Fovista, in combination with Eylea or with Avastin, failed to show superiority to Lucentis.
Abicipar is a drug that is injected into the eye to target VEGF. Its potential advantage is longer duration of action in the eye. In a phase II trial, the data suggest it may last as long as 12 weeks. A phase III trial is now underway.
Clinical Trials for Dry AMD
The information below represents a sample of the clinical trials for dry AMD.
While two phase III trials by Genentech targeting the complement protein called factor D in geographic atrophy patients recently failed, a phase II trial by Apellis targeting a different complement protein called C3 showed promising results.
Another complement inhibitor is Zimura. This drug inhibits a different complement protein called complement factor 5. Like Lampalizumab, it is injected into the eye.
An oral drug is Oracea, which is the antibiotic doxycycline, which has anti-inflammatory activities that may be beneficial for patients with geographic atrophy.
Another orally administered pill just entering clinical trials is the antioxidant lipoic acid. This drug was able to protect mice against retinal degeneration in my lab, and is retina-protective in several other preclinical models. This study is funded in part by BrightFocus Foundation.
The decision to enter a clinical trial is a personal one, and should be discussed with your retina specialist. Sometimes it will result in better outcomes for trial participants, and it always helps current and future generations of AMD patients when clinical trial results guide them to the most effective treatments.
- Macular Degeneration Toolkit (Helpful Information to Understand and Manage Macular Degeneration)
- Expert Information on Macular Degeneration (Articles)
- BrightFocus Chats (Audio Presentations on Macular Degeneration)
- Learn more about clinical trials (Article)
- Understanding clinical trials (Audio and Transcript)
- Search for clinical trials (Search Widget)
- View a list of open macular degeneration clinical trials (ClinicalTrials.gov website)
This content was last updated on: October 24, 2018
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