Vascular Function and Cognition in Type 2 Diabetes
The overall goal of this study is to investigate the contribution of arterial wall functions (AWF, the flexibility of the vasculature in the brain and in the periphery) to cognitive function in individuals with type 2 diabetes, who are at particularly high risk of developing dementia.
Our first aim is to examine the relationships of AWF with cognitive functions. AWF will be measured in three different modalities: cerebrovascular reactivity, carotid elasticity, and peripheral endothelial function. Cognitive function will include specific cognitive domains, namely memory, attention, language, and executive functions, as well as a score that reflects overall cognitive function.
Our second aim is to investigate the relationships of AWF with diabetes-related characteristics (glucose control, inflammation, and a gene, haptoglobin, that has been consistently associated with diabetes complications). These characteristics are related to dementia, so we will test whether their relationships with AWF explain results of the first aim. If AWF are related to diabetes-related characteristics, which in turn are related to cognition, this provides a link that explains through which pathway AWF contributes to cognitive function and dementia.
Our third aim is to examine whether the relationships of diabetes-related characteristics with cognition are modified by AWF. We will test whether the relationships of these characteristics with cognition are stronger in subjects with impaired AWF, suggesting biological mechanistic involvement of AWF in these relationships. This goes beyond the second aim, which does not assume that the relationships of diabetes-related characteristics with cognition differ according to AWF involvement.
The public health impact of this investigation is expected to accelerate as the proportion of elderly increases to an alarming prevalence of 28 percent for diabetes and 16 percent for Alzheimer's Disease by 2050, in those above the age of 65. Finding modifiable mechanisms that underlie the relationships between diabetes and dementia is crucial to slowing this epidemic. This study employs an already established infrastructure, the Israel Diabetes and Cognitive Decline (IDCD) study, a sample of 1,200 subjects who are followed for cognitive decline and dementia. Participants are recruited from the Diabetes Registry of the Maccabi Health Services (MHS)—the second largest HMO in Israel, covering 2 million residents. This Diabetes Registry provides the study with detailed information on diabetes characteristics for over 15 years including all laboratory measurements, diabetes-related complications, medical comorbidities and prescribed medications since 1998.
The present study innovates by examining AWF both in the brain and in the periphery, enabling a comprehensive understanding of the role of vascular functioning in diabetes-related cognitive impairment in an exquisitely well-characterized cohort. Importantly, in contrast to vascular structure, vascular function—which is modifiable and thus amenable to interventions—has been rarely studied in the context of dementia. Thus, results from this study may open prospects for development of interventions against diabetes-related cognitive decline, Alzheimer’s disease, and dementia.
About the Researcher
Michal Schnaider Beeri directs the Joseph Sagol Neuroscience Center at Sheba Medical Center, Israel; she is an associate professor on the faculty at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY, and at the Interdisciplinary Center, Israel. Dr. Beeri's BA and MA degrees were awarded Magna Cum Laude. She received her PhD in rehabilitation psychology from Bar Ilan University in Israel in 2000. She has won the Brookdale Institute of Gerontology and Human Development, the Gonda Foundation, the International College of Geriatric Psychoneuropharmacology Young Investigator, and the Mount Sinai Academic Excellence Faculty Council awards. Specializing in geriatric psychology, her career has been fully devoted to the study of cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and dementia. A major focus of her work has been diabetes as a risk factor for dementia and AD. She is the principal investigator of the Israel Diabetes and Cognitive Decline study, on which this application focusing on arterial wall function will be based. Dr. Beeri's other major scientific focus is the neuropsychological and neurobiological aspects of cognition in the oldest-old, the fastest growing segment of the population, at the highest risk for dementia, but the least studied. She has over 85 peer-reviewed publications, most of which are devoted to risk and protective factors against cognitive impairment and dementia. She has been continuously funded by the National Institutes on Health and other aging related funding organizations (such as the Alzheimer’s Association) since 2003.
Dr. Beeri was born in Israel, grew up in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and moved back to Israel to serve in the Israeli Defense Forces and complete her studies. In 2001, she moved to New York to join the full-time faculty at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, where she keeps an academic position. In 2011, she accepted the invitation by the CEO of the Sheba Medical Center to direct the Joseph Sagol Neuroscience Center, a multi-disciplinary, patient-oriented, brain research center. Since then, Dr. Beeri enjoys very much sharing her time between Israel and New York, since she believes in the synergism of bringing to Israel the superb and rigorous Mount Sinai scientific level, while bringing back to Mount Sinai the “out of the box” thinking of the Israeli scientific brain.
Dr. Beeri is married and has three children. She is a sports devotee, and a passionate fan of Brazilian soccer, for which she considers herself an expert, no less than for brain aging.
First published on: July 9, 2014
Last modified on: July 1, 2017