Text Size Normal Text Sizing Button Medium Text Sizing Button Large Text Sizing Button Text Contrast Normal Contrast Button Reverse Contrast ButtonSwitch to Spanish Language Press Room Contact Us Sitemap Sign In Register
Link to Homepage About BrightFocus
BrightFocus
Donate Now Get Involved  
Alzheimer's Disease Research Macular Degeneration Research National Glaucoma Research


Stay Informed: Medical and Research Updates
Connect With Us!
 

 

Heavy Smoking Doubles Alzheimer's Disease, Dementia Risk

October 28, 2010

Adapted from GolinHarris International

Heavy smoking in midlife is associated with a 157 percent increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and a 172 percent increased risk of developing vascular dementia, according to a Kaiser Permanente study published in the Archives of Internal Medicine. This is the first study to look at the long-term consequences of heavy smoking on dementia.

Researchers followed an ethnically diverse population of 21,123 men and women from midlife onward for an average of 23 years. Compared with non-smokers, those who had smoked more than two packs of cigarettes a day had more than a 157 percent increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and 172 percent increased risk of vascular dementia during the mean follow-up period of 23 years.

Vascular dementia, the second most common form of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, is a group of dementia syndromes caused by conditions affecting the blood supply to the brain.

"This study shows that the brain is not immune to the long-term consequences of heavy smoking," said the study's principal investigator, Rachel A. Whitmer, Ph.D., a research scientist with the Kaiser Permanente Division of Research in Oakland, Calif. "We know smoking compromises the vascular system by affecting blood pressure and elevates blood clotting factors, and we know vascular health plays a role in risk of Alzheimer's disease."

Researchers analyzed prospective data from of 21,123 Kaiser Permanente Northern California members who participated in a survey between 1978 and 1985. Diagnoses of dementia, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia made in internal medicine, neurology, and neuropsychology were collected from 1994 to 2008. The researchers adjusted for age, sex, education, race, marital status, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, body mass index, diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and alcohol use.

"While we don't know for sure, we think the mechanisms between smoking and Alzheimer's and vascular dementia are complex, including possible deleterious effects to brain blood vessels as well as brain cells," said study co-author Minna Rusanen, M.D., of the University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital in Finland.

This study is the latest in a series of published Kaiser Permanente research to better understand the modifiable risk factors for dementia. This ongoing body of research adds to evidence base that what is good for the heart is good for the brain, and that midlife is not too soon to begin preventing dementia with good health. The other studies led by Whitmer found that a large abdomen in midlife increases risk of late-life dementia, elevated cholesterol levels in midlife increase risk of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, and low blood-sugar events in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes increase dementia risk. Another Kaiser Permanente study led by Valerie Crooks of Kaiser Permanente in Southern California found that having a strong social network of friends and family appears to decrease risk for dementia.

View all news updates for Alzheimer's disease


Disclaimer: The information provided in this section is a public service of the BrightFocus Foundation, and should not in any way substitute for the advice of a qualified healthcare professional, and is not intended to constitute medical advice. Although we take efforts to keep the medical information on our website updated, we cannot guarantee that the information on our website reflects the most up-to-date research. Please consult your physician for personalized medical advice; all medications and supplements should only be taken under medical supervision. BrightFocus Foundation does not endorse any medical product or therapy.

Some of the content in this section is adapted from other sources, which are clearly identified within each individual item of information.

Shop for a Cause YouTube Twitter Connect With Us Pinterest Google+